Progressing Antimicrobial Resistance Sensing Technologies across Human, Animal, and Environmental Health Domains
The spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a rapidly growing threat to humankind on both regional and global scales. As countries worldwide prepare to embrace a One Health approach to AMR management, which is one that recognizes the interconnectivity between human, animal, and environmental health, increasing attention is being paid to identifying and monitoring key contributing factors and critical control points. Presently, AMR sensing technologies have significantly progressed phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) and genotypic antimicrobial resistance gene (ARG) detection in human healthcare. For effective AMR management, an evolution of innovative sensing technologies is needed for tackling the unique challenges of interconnected AMR across various and different health domains. This review comprehensively discusses the modern state-of-play for innovative commercial and emerging AMR sensing technologies, including sequencing, microfluidic, and miniaturized point-of-need platforms. With a unique view toward the future of One Health, we also provide our perspectives and outlook on the constantly changing landscape of AMR sensing technologies beyond the human health domain.
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