Transmission of Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria at the Hajj: A Scoping Review

  12 November 2022

The Hajj is an annual religious mass gathering event held in Makkah, Saudi Arabia.  With millions of participants from across the globe attending the Hajj, the risk of importation, transmission, and global spread of infectious diseases is high. The emergence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria is of worldwide concern and the Hajj poses a serious risk to its dissemination. This review aims to synthesize published literature on AMR bacteria acquisition and transmission associated with the Hajj.

This review provides a contemporary account of knowledge related to AMR transmission at the Hajj. It emphasizes the need for the enhancement of surveillance for AMR bacteria globally.

Author(s): Sara Alreeme et al
Effective Surveillance  


Unrestricted financial support by:

Antimicrobial Resistance Fighter Coalition

Bangalore Bioinnovation Centre


JSS University


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