Spatiotemporal distribution of antimicrobial resistant organisms in different water environments in urban and rural settings of Bangladesh
The spatial distribution of clinically important antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and associated genes is important to identify the environmental distribution of contamination and ‘hotspots’ of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). We conducted an integrated survey of AMR in drinking water, wastewater and surface water (rivers and ponds) in three settings in Bangladesh: rural households, rural poultry farms, and urban food markets. Spatial mapping was conducted via geographic information system (GIS) using ArcGIS software. Samples (n = 397) were analyzed for the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-Ec), carbapenem-resistant E. coli (CR-Ec) and resistance genes (blaCTX-M-1, blaNDM-1).
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