Reflection paper on antimicrobial resistance in the environment: considerations for current and future risk assessment of veterinary medicinal products
This reflection paper considers the impact(s) on ecosystems, animal and human health from the presence of antimicrobial residues (ARs) and/or antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs; a DNA region within the microbial genome that encodes for reduced sensitivity against specific antimicrobials) in the environment resulting from the use of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs). At the outset, we define antimicrobial resistance (AMR) as the ability of microorganisms such as bacteria to become increasingly resistant to an antimicrobial to which they were previously susceptible.
This paper reflects on what is required to address the data gaps and to better understand the factors that influence resistance emergence in the environment such as, movement of ARs and ARGs between different environmental compartments.
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