Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing and species identification for mixed samples
Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem on a global scale. Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) is urgently needed in the clinic to enable personalized prescriptions in high-resistance environments and to limit the use of broad-spectrum drugs. Current rapid phenotypic AST methods do not include species identification (ID), leaving time-consuming plating or culturing as the only available option when ID is needed to make the sensitivity call. Here we describe a method to perform phenotypic AST at the single-cell level in a microfluidic chip that allows subsequent genotyping by in situ FISH. By stratifying the phenotypic AST response on the species of individual cells, it is possible to determine the susceptibility profile for each species in a mixed sample in 2 h. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate the operation with four antibiotics and mixed samples with combinations of seven species.
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