Molecular diagnostics for genotypic detection of antibiotic resistance: current landscape and future directions
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among bacteria is an escalating public health emergency that has worsened during the COVID-19 pandemic. When making antibiotic treatment decisions, clinicians rely heavily on determination of antibiotic susceptibility or resistance by the microbiology laboratory, but conventional methods often take several days to identify AMR. There are now several commercially available molecular methods that detect antibiotic resistance genes within hours rather than days. While these methods have limitations, they offer promise for optimizing treatment and patient outcomes, and reducing further emergence of AMR. This review provides an overview of commercially available genotypic assays that detect individual resistance genes and/or resistance-associated mutations in a variety of specimen types and discusses how clinical outcomes studies may be used to demonstrate clinical utility of such diagnostics.
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