Mechanisms of emerging resistance associated with non-antibiotic antimicrobial agents: a state-of-the-art review
The present review discusses various chemical substances and factors other than typical antibiotics, such as preservatives, disinfectants, biocides, heavy metals and improper chemical sterilization that contribute to the development of AMR. Furthermore, it encompasses the mechanisms like co-resistance and co-selection, horizontal gene transfer, changes in the composition and permeability of cell membrane, efflux pumps, transposons, biofilm formation and enzymatic degradation of antimicrobial chemicals which underlie the development of resistance to various non-antibiotic antimicrobial agents.
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