Infections by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative Bacteria: what’s new in our arsenal and what’s in the pipeline?

Since 2010, very few new antibiotics (ceftolozane/tazobactam, ceftazidime/avibactam, meropenem/vaborbactam, plazomicin, eravacycline) have been approved to fight multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.There are several more new and emerging antibiotics in development or undergoing clinical trials.

Alternative treatments for Gram-negative bacterial infections are being explored, including targeting quorum sensing systems, lectin inhibition, bacteriophage-mediated endolysin delivery, and antibody immune therapy

The spread of multidrug resistant bacteria is an ever-growing concern especially among Gram-negative ones due to their intrinsic resistance as well as their ability to acquire and spread new resistance mechanisms rapidly. The challenge to treat infections by these organisms leaves medical practitioners helpless to their treatment and increases patient mortality as well as cost of care globally. This vulnerability, along with strategies to tackle antimicrobial resistance development, prompts the development of new antibiotic agents as well as exploration of alternative treatment options. This article summarises the new antibiotics that have recently been approved for Gram-negative bacterial infections, looks down the pipeline at promising agents currently in phase I, II, or III clinical trials, and introduces new alternative avenues that show potential in combating multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

Source: ScienceDirect

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