Gram-negative neonatal sepsis in low- and lower-middle-income countries and WHO empirical antibiotic recommendations: A systematic review and meta-analysis

  21 October 2021

Neonatal sepsis is a significant global health issue associated with marked regional disparities in mortality. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing concern in Gram-negative organisms, which increasingly predominate in neonatal sepsis, and existing WHO empirical antibiotic recommendations may no longer be appropriate. Previous systematic reviews have been limited to specific low- and middle-income countries. We therefore completed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available data from all low- and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs) since 2010, with a focus on regional differences in Gram-negative infections and AMR.

Gram-negative bacteria are an important cause of neonatal sepsis in LLMICs and are associated with significant rates of resistance to WHO-recommended first- and second-line empirical antibiotics. AMR surveillance should underpin region-specific empirical treatment recommendations. Meanwhile, a significant global commitment to accessible and effective antimicrobials for neonates is required.

Further reading: PLOS Medicine
Author(s): Sophie C. H. Wen, Yukiko Ezure, Lauren Rolley, Geoff Spurling, Colleen L. Lau, Saba Riaz, David L. Paterson, Adam D. Irwin
Effective Surveillance   Healthy Patients  


Unrestricted financial support by:


Antimicrobial Resistance Fighter Coalition

Bangalore Bioinnovation Centre



Every two weeks in your inbox

Because there should be one newsletter that brings together all One Health news related to antimicrobial resistance: AMR NEWS!


What is going on with AMR?
Stay tuned with remarkable global AMR news and developments!

Keep me informed