Environmental impacts of mass drug administration programs: exposures, risks, and mitigation of antimicrobial resistance
Mass drug administration (MDA) of antimicrobials has shown promise in the reduction and potential elimination of a variety of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). However, with antimicrobial resistance (AMR) becoming a global crisis, the risks posed by widespread antimicrobial use need to be evaluated. As the role of the environment in AMR emergence and dissemination has become increasingly recognized, it is likewise crucial to establish the role of MDA in environmental AMR pollution, along with the potential impacts of such pollution. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the antimicrobial compounds, resistant organisms, and antimicrobial resistance genes in MDA trials, routes of these determinants into the environment, and their persistence and ecological impacts, particularly in low and middle-income countries where these trials are most common.
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