Contribution of wastewater to Antimicrobial Resistance- A Review article

  22 June 2023

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global challenge that has raised concern globally due to its detrimental effects on the health and economy of countries. The ever-growing threat of AMR and sources of AMR are still being investigated. Wastewater plays an important role as a habitat for bacteria and an environment conducive to gene transfer.

Wastewater from agricultural practices, pharmaceutical manufacturing plants, and hospital effluents was established to promote AMR. Furthermore, stress factors such as the presence of antibiotics, heavy metals, pH, and temperature initiate and propagate AMR in bacteria living in wastewater. AMR in bacteria from wastewater was established to be either natural or acquired. Wastewater treatment techniques such as membrane filtration, coagulation, adsorption, and advanced oxidation processes have been used to remove resistant bacteria with varying success levels as shown in section 3.0.

Author(s): Shepherd Sundayi Sambaza, Nisha Naicker
Clean Environment  


Unrestricted financial support by:


Antimicrobial Resistance Fighter Coalition

Bangalore Bioinnovation Centre


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