Biocide-Induced Emergence of Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli
Biocide use is essential and ubiquitous, exposing microbes to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antiseptics, disinfectants, and preservatives. This can lead to the emergence of biocide resistance, and more importantly, potential cross-resistance to antibiotics, although the degree, frequency, and mechanisms that give rise to this phenomenon are still unclear. Here, we systematically performed adaptive laboratory evolution of the gut bacteria Escherichia coli in the presence of sub-inhibitory, constant concentrations of ten widespread biocides. Our results show that 17 out of 40 evolved strains (43%) also decreased the susceptibility to medically relevant antibiotics.
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