Antimicrobials and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Water Bodies: Pollution, Risk, and Control
The manuscript endeavors to provide a perspective on the role of water bodies in the spread of antimicrobial (antibiotic) resistance (AMR), antimicrobial resistant bacteria (ARB), and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) among pathogens, animals, and humans. We briefly indicate how the AMR problem is globally affecting public health, along with strategies and mechanisms to combat the dissemination of ARB and ARGs. A brief systematic survey of the literature (2015-onwards) for the presence of antimicrobial residues and the occurrence of ARGs and antimicrobial resistant microorganisms in different water bodies/sources indicates the gravity of the situation and suggests their important role in the occurrence and spread of AMR, ARB, and ARGs. The prevalent water treatment methods which tend to reduce ARB and ARGs from water resources are unable to remove them completely, allowing the problem of AMR to continue and spread to organisms of concern.
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