Antimicrobial resistance, Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase production and virulence genes in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli isolates from estuarine environment
The impact of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) on global public health has been widely documented. AMR in the environment poses a serious threat to both human and animal health but is frequently overlooked. This study aimed to characterize the association between phenotype and genotype of AMR, virulence genes and Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) production from estuarine environment. The Salmonella (n = 126) and E. coli (n = 409) were isolated from oysters and estuarine water in Thailand. The isolates of Salmonella (96.9%) and E. coli (91.4%) showed resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was 40.1% of Salmonella and 23.0% of E. coli. Resistance to sulfamethoxazole was most common in Salmonella (95.2%) and E. coli (77.8%). The common resistance genes found in Salmonella were sul3 (14.3%), followed by blaTEM (11.9%), and cmlA (11.9%), while most E. coli were blaTEM (31.5%) and tetA (25.4%). The ESBL production was detected in Salmonella (1.6%, n = 2) of which one isolate was positive to blaTEM-1. Eight E. coli isolates (2.0%) were ESBL producers, of which three isolates carried blaCTX-M-55 and one isolate was blaTEM-1. Predominant virulence genes identified in Salmonella were invA (77.0%), stn (77.0%), and fimA (69.0%), while those in E. coli isolates were stx1 (17.8%), lt (11.7%), and stx2 (1.2%). Logistic regression models showed the statistical association between resistance phenotype, virulence genes and ESBL production (p < 0.05). The findings highlighted that estuarine environment were potential hotspots of resistance. One Health should be implemented to prevent AMR bacteria spreading.
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The AMR Insights Ambassador Network is a growing, distinctive group of professionals who stand out for their commitment, willingness to cooperate and open attitude to combat Antimicrobial resistance (AMR).