Antimicrobial consumption and resistance in bacteria from humans and food-producing animals

  11 April 2024

The fourth joint inter-agency report on integrated analysis of antimicrobial consumption (AMC) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria from humans and food-producing animals (JIACRA) analyzed data from EU-wide surveillance networks for 2019-2021. The analysis aimed to identify trends in AMR and AMC over 2014-2021. The total AMC in food-producing animals decreased by 44% between 2014 and 2021, while in humans, it remained relatively stable.

Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to study associations between AMC and AMR for selected combinations of bacteria and antimicrobials. Positive associations were observed between the consumption of certain antimicrobials and resistance to those substances in bacteria from both humans and food-producing animals. AMR in bacteria from humans was associated with AMR in bacteria from food-producing animals, which, in turn, was related to AMC in animals.

Statistically significant decreasing trends in AMC and AMR were concomitant for food-producing animals and humans in several countries over 2014-2021. A proportion of countries that significantly reduced total AMC also registered increasing susceptibility to antimicrobials in indicator E. coli from food-producing animals and E. coli originating from human invasive infections.

The findings suggest that measures implemented to reduce AMC in food-producing animals and humans have been effective in many countries. However, these measures need to be reinforced to retain and continue reductions in AMC.

Further reading: ECDC, EFSA, EMA
Author(s): ECDC, EFSA, EMA
Secure Foods  


Unrestricted financial support by:


Antimicrobial Resistance Fighter Coalition

Bangalore Bioinnovation Centre



Every two weeks in your inbox

Because there should be one newsletter that brings together all One Health news related to antimicrobial resistance: AMR NEWS!


What is going on with AMR?
Stay tuned with remarkable global AMR news and developments!

Keep me informed