A State-of-Art Review on Multi-Drug Resistant Pathogens in Foods of Animal Origin: Risk Factors and Mitigation Strategies
Most of the foodborne microbial diseases are linked to foods of animal origin such as milk, meat, and poultry. Nowadays, the presence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens in foods is becoming an increasingly public health concern worldwide due to the overuse of antimicrobial drugs in animal feed. MDR pathogens can enter the food chain by posing a significant risk to both animals and consumers. MDR pathogens causing infections are untreatable due to their resistance to various antibiotics, primarily cephalosporin and carbapenems and to their extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing capability. In addition, foods of animal origin and food-related environments can be likely vehicles for spreading of multi-drug resistance genes, which accelerates the thriving of global antibiotic resistance.
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