A comprehensive review of the applications of bacteriophage-derived endolysins for foodborne bacterial pathogens and food safety: recent advances, challenges, and future perspective
Foodborne diseases are caused by food contaminated by pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter, and Clostridium, a critical threat to human health. As a novel antibacterial agent against foodborne pathogens, endolysins are peptidoglycan hydrolases encoded by bacteriophages that lyse bacterial cells by targeting their cell wall, notably in Gram-positive bacteria due to their naturally exposed peptidoglycan layer. These lytic enzymes have gained scientists’ interest in recent years due to their selectivity, mode of action, engineering potential, and lack of resistance mechanisms. The use of endolysins for food safety has undergone significant improvements, which are summarized and discussed in this review.
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