Wounds, Antimicrobial Resistance and Challenges of Implementing a Surveillance System in Myanmar: A Mixed-Methods Study

  20 May 2021

Wound infections with drug-resistant bacteria lead to higher mortality and morbidity and increased healthcare costs. We aimed to describe the spectrum of bacterial pathogens, isolated from wound cultures in Yangon General Hospital in 2018, and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns and to understand the challenges in implementing an AMR surveillance system in Myanmar. We conducted a concurrent mixed-methods study involving analysis of surveillance data and indepth interviews with nine key personnel involved in AMR surveillance. Of 1418 wound specimens processed, 822 (58%) were culture-positive. The most common Gram-positive bacteria were coagulase negative staphylococci (23.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (15.1%). Among Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli (12.5%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.1%) were common. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin (98%), oxacillin (70%) and tetracycline (66%). Escherichia coli showed resistance to ampicillin (98%).

Author(s): Win-Pa Sandar, Saw Saw, Ajay M. V. Kumar, Bienvenu Salim Camara and Myint-Myint Sein
Effective Surveillance  


Unrestricted financial support by:

Antimicrobial Resistance Fighter Coalition

Bangalore Bioinnovation Centre


JSS University


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