Worldwide dispensing of non-prescription antibiotics in community pharmacies and associated factors: a mixed-methods systematic review

  25 April 2023

This mixed-method systemic review estimated the pooled prevalence of non-prescription antibiotic dispensing in community pharmacies worldwide and identified associated factors influencing the practice. 162 studies covering 52 countries were included. The pooled prevalence of community pharmacy non-prescription antibiotic dispensing was 63·4% (95% CI 59·6–67·1). The prevalence was significantly higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries. Additionally, the situation of dispensing antibiotics without prescriptions has not improved over time in the past two decades. Quantitative studies showed that pharmacies located in poorer economic areas, pharmacy staff who were also the pharmacy owners, and private pharmacies were more likely to dispense non-prescription antibiotics.

Author(s): Jinxi Li et al
Effective Surveillance  


Unrestricted financial support by:

Antimicrobial Resistance Fighter Coalition

Bangalore Bioinnovation Centre


JSS University


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