Veterinary consumption of highest priority critically important antimicrobials and various growth promoters based on import data in Pakistan

  15 September 2022

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health emergency driven by the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial agents in humans and animals. Antimicrobial consumption surveillance guides its containment efforts. In this study, we estimated, for the first time, veterinary consumption of Critically Important Antimicrobials with Highest Priority (CIA-HtP) for Pakistan.

These antimicrobials were a mix of macrolides, quinolones, polymyxins and cephalosporins, among which are some also on the Watch or Reserve list by the WHO, indicating the need for stewardship and to conserve essential antimicrobials to contain AMR. The finding that a yearly average of 192.39 tonnes of the ACC imported were FAs/GPs further highlight the need for stronger regulation and enforcement.

Further reading: PlosOne
Author(s): Muhammad Umair, Samuel Orubu, Muhammad Hamid Zaman, Veronika J. Wirtz, Mashkoor Mohsin
Effective Surveillance  


Unrestricted financial support by:

Antimicrobial Resistance Fighter Coalition


JSS University


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