Urban Birds as Antimicrobial Resistance Sentinels: White Storks Showed Higher Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli Levels Than Seagulls in Central Spain
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a major health challenge of the 21st century. Several studies confirm the potential role of wildlife as sentinel for pathogens surveillance. Moreover, the presence of AMR bacteria in the wildlife can be considered as a good indicator of anthropization level on the ecosystem. The fast increase in AMR worldwide has been enhanced by several factors as globalization and migration. The study of antimicrobial resistance in wild birds is of great importance, as they can travel hundreds of kilometers and disseminate pathogens and AMR across different regions or even continents. The aim of this study was to compare the level of AMR in three bird species: white stork (Ciconia ciconia), lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus) and black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus).
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