Unraveling the Nature of Antibiotics: Is It a Cure or a New Hurdle to the Patient Treatment?
Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem worldwide that has been exacerbated by antibiotic misuse worldwide. Growing antibiotic resistance can be attributed to as well as leads to severe infections, complications, prolonged hospital admissions, and higher mortality. One of the most important goals of administering antimicrobials is to avoid establishing antibiotic resistance during therapy. This can be done by drastically lowering worldwide antimicrobial usage, both in present and future. While current management methods to legislate antimicrobials and educate the healthcare community on the challenges are beneficial, they do not solve the problem of attaining an overall reduction in antimicrobial usage in humans. Application of rapid microbiological diagnostics for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, use of inflammation markers to guide initiation and duration of therapies, reduction of standard antibiotic course durations, individualization of antibiotic treatments, and dosing considering pharmacokinetics are all possible strategies to optimize antibiotic use in everyday clinical practice and reduce the risk of inducing bacterial resistance. Furthermore, to remove any impediments to proper prescribing, strategies to improve antibiotic prescribing and antibiotic stewardship programs should enable clinical reasoning and enhance the prescribing environment. In addition, the well-established association between antimicrobial usage and resistance should motivate efforts to develop antimicrobial treatment regimens that facilitate the evolution of resistance. This review discusses the role of antibiotics, their current application in human medicine, and how the resistance has evolved to the existing antibiotics based on the existing literature.
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