Trends and impact of antimicrobial resistance on older inpatients with urinary tract infections (UTIs): A national retrospective observational study
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common infections in older people and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. UTIs are also associated with increased risk of antimicrobial resistance (AR). This study examined changes in AR among older inpatients with a primary diagnosis of UTIs in the United States over an 8-year period and the impact of AR on clinical outcomes and hospital costs. Data were obtained from the longitudinal hospital HCUP-NIS database from 2009 to 2016 for inpatient episodes that involved those aged 65+ years. The ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes were used to identify episodes with a primary diagnosis of UTIs, comorbidities, AR status and age-adjusted Deyo-Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) for the patient concerned. Weighted multivariable regression was used to examine the impact of AR on all-cause inpatient mortality, discharge destination, length of stay and hospital expenditures, adjusted for socio-demographic and clinical covariates. The proportion of admissions with AR increased, from 3.64% in 2009 to 6.88% in 2016 (p<0.001), with distinct patterns for different types of resistance. The likelihood of AR was higher in admissions with high ACCI scores and admissions to hospitals in urban areas. Admissions with AR were more likely to be discharged to healthcare facilities (e.g. care homes) compared to routine discharge (OR 1.81; 95%CI, 1.75–1.86), had increased length of stay (1.12 days; 95%CI, 1.06–1.18) and hospital costs (1259 USD; 95%CI, 1178–1340). Resistance due to MRSA was specifically associated with increased hospital mortality (OR 1.33; 95%CI, 1.15–1.53). Our findings suggest that the prevalence of AR has increased among older inpatients with UTIs in the USA. The study highlights the impact of AR among older inpatients with a primary diagnosis of UTIs on clinical outcomes and hospital costs. These relationships and their implications for the care homes to which patients are frequently discharged warrant further research.
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