Transmission routes of antibiotic resistant bacteria: a systematic review
Quantification of acquisition routes of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) is pivotal for understanding transmission dynamics and designing cost-effective interventions. Different methods have been used to quantify the importance of transmission routes, such as relative risks, odds ratios (OR), genomic comparisons and basic reproduction numbers. We systematically reviewed reported estimates on acquisition routes’ contributions of ARB in humans, animals, water and the environment and assessed the methods used to quantify the importance of transmission routes.
Despite an abundance of published data the relative importance of transmission routes of ARB has not been accurately quantified. Links between exposure and acquisition are often present, but the frequency of exposure is missing, which disables estimation of transmission routes’ importance. To create effective policies reducing ARB, estimates of transmission should be weighed by the frequency of exposure occurrence.
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