Transiently silent acquired antimicrobial resistance: an emerging challenge in susceptibility testing
Acquisition and expression of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) mechanisms in bacteria are often associated with a fitness cost. Thus, evolutionary adaptation and fitness cost compensation may support the advance of subpopulations with a silent resistance phenotype when the antibiotic selection pressure is absent. However, reports are emerging on the transient nature of silent acquired AMR, describing genetic alterations that can change the expression of these determinants to a clinically relevant level of resistance, and the association with breakthrough infections causing treatment failures. This phenomenon of transiently silent acquired AMR (tsaAMR) is likely to increase, considering the overall expansion of acquired AMR in bacterial pathogens.
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