Reframing antimicrobial resistance as a continuous spectrum of manifestations

  17 January 2023

To fight antimicrobial resistance (AMR), we must recognize and target all its manifestations. In this review, we briefly summarize the history that led to recognition of the various manifestations of AMR in bacterial pathogens and the ways in which they interrelate. We emphasize the importance of distinguishing between AMR arising from genetic alterations versus induction of endogenous machinery in response to environmental triggers, including — paradoxically — stresses from host immunity and antimicrobial therapy. We present an integrated view of AMR by reframing it as a spectrum of phenotypes within a continuous three-dimensional space defined by the growth rate, prevalence, and kill rate of cells displaying AMR. Finally, we reflect on strategies that may help stem the emergence of AMR.

Author(s): Sarah M Schrader et al
Effective Surveillance  


Unrestricted financial support by:

Antimicrobial Resistance Fighter Coalition

Bangalore Bioinnovation Centre


JSS University


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