Persistence of resistance: a panel data analysis of the effect of antibiotic usage on the prevalence of resistance
The use of antibiotics promotes the emergence of resistant bacteria in the patient and the environment. The extent of this well-documented biological relationship is, however, not well characterized at an ecological level. To make good policy around antibiotic use, it is important to understand the empirical connection between usage and resistance. We provide a consistent approach to estimate this relationship using national-level surveillance data. This paper estimates the effect of antibiotic usage on antibiotic resistance using an 11-year panel of data on both usage and resistance for 26 antibiotic–bacteria combinations in 26 European countries.
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