Multiple introductions of multidrug-resistant typhoid associated with acute infection and asymptomatic carriage, Kenya
Understanding the dynamics of infection and carriage of typhoid in endemic settings is critical to finding solutions to prevention and control.
In a 3 year case-control study, we investigated typhoid among children aged <16 years (4,670 febrile cases and 8,549 age matched controls) living in an informal settlement, Nairobi, Kenya.
The high rate of multidrug-resistant H58 S.Typhi, and the close phylogenetic relationships between cases and controls, provides evidence for the role of carriers as a reservoir for the community spread of typhoid in this setting.
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