Multiple antimicrobial resistance and outcomes among hospitalized patients with complicated urinary tract infections in the US, 2013–2018: a retrospective cohort study
Complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) is common among hospitalized patients. Though carbapenems are an effective treatment in the face of rising resistance, overuse drives carbapenem resistance (CR). We hypothesized that resistance to routinely used antimicrobials is common, and, despite frequent use of carbapenems, associated with an increased risk of inappropriate empiric treatment (IET), which in turn worsens clinical outcomes.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with a culture-positive non-CR cUTI. Triple resistance (TR) was defined as resistance to > 3 of the following: 3rd generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fosfomycin, and nitrofurantoin. Multivariable models quantified the impact of TR and inappropriate empiric therapy (IET) on mortality, hospital LOS, and costs.
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