Impact of long-term care facility residence on the antibiotic resistance of urinary tract Escherichia coli and Klebsiella

Background: Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are thought to be important reservoirs of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria; however, there is no routine surveillance of resistance in LTCF residents, or large population-based studies comparing AMR in LTCFs with the community, so the relative burden of AMR in LTCFs remains unknown.

Objectives: To compare the frequency of antibiotic resistance of urinary tract bacteria from residents of LTCFs for the elderly and adults aged 70 years or older living in the community.

Methods: Positive urine specimens reported to any diagnostic microbiology laboratory in the West Midlands region (England) from 1 April 2010 to 31 March 2014 collected from individuals aged 70 years or older were analysed. The resistance of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella to trimethoprim, nitrofurantoin, third-generation cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin and the rate of laboratory-confirmed E. coli and Klebsiella urinary tract infection (UTI) were assessed in LTCF residents and in the community.

Results: LTCF residents had a laboratory-confirmed E. coli and Klebsiella UTI rate of 21 per 100 person years compared with 8 per 100 person years in the elderly living in the community [rate ratio (RR)=2.66, 95% CI = 2.58–2.73] and a higher rate of developing E. coli and Klebsiella UTIs caused by bacteria resistant to trimethoprim (RR = 4.41, 95% CI = 4.25–4.57), nitrofurantoin (RR = 4.38, 95% CI = 3.98–4.83), ciprofloxacin (RR = 5.18, 95% CI = 4.82–5.57) and third-generation cephalosporins (RR = 4.49, 95% CI = 4.08–4.94).

Conclusions: Residents of LTCFs for the elderly had more than double the rate of E. coli and Klebsiella UTI and more than four times the rate of E. coli and Klebsiella UTI caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria compared with those living in the community.

Source: Oxford Academic Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

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