Identification of Multiple Variant Extensively Drug-Resistant Typhoid Infections across Pakistan

  12 January 2023

Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), is a life-threatening bacterial infection. Recently, an outbreak of a new sublineage of extensively drug resistant (XDR) S. Typhi emerged in Pakistan in the province of Sindh. This sublineage had both a composite multidrug resistance transposon integrated on the chromosome and an acquired IncY plasmid carrying the extended spectrum beta-lactamase, blaCTX-M-15, which conferred resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. We observed previously that XDR typhoid had spread beyond the originating southern Sindh Province. Thus, we sought to determine the genetic diversity of 58 ceftriaxone-resistant S. Typhi clinical isolates by whole genome sequencing collected across Pakistan from November 2018 to December 2020 to provide insights into the molecular epidemiology of the evolving outbreak.

Author(s): Rashid Kamal, Carly Ching, Muhammad H. Zaman, Faisal Sultan, Salma Abbas, Ezza Khan, Shaper Mirza and Summiya Nizamuddin
Effective Surveillance  


Unrestricted financial support by:


Antimicrobial Resistance Fighter Coalition

Bangalore Bioinnovation Centre


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