Epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) on California dairies: descriptive and cluster analyses of AMR phenotype of fecal commensal bacteria isolated from adult cows
This study describes the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in commensal Escherichia coli and Enterococcus/Streptococcus spp. (ES) isolated from fecal samples of dairy cows and assesses the variation of AMR profiles across regions and seasons following the implementation of the Food and Agricultural Code (FAC) Sections 14400–14408 (formerly known as Senate Bill, SB 27) in California (CA).
Our findings showed high rates of AMR to several drugs that are not labeled for use in lactating dairy cattle 20 months of age or older. Conversely, very low resistance was observed for drugs labeled for use in adult dairy cows, such as cephalosporins and penicillin. Overall, our findings identified important differences in AMR by antimicrobial class, region and season.
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