Antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in Canadian ICUs: results of the CANWARD 2007 to 2016 study
To describe the microbiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns of cultured samples acquired from Canadian ICUs.
From 2007 to 2016, tertiary care centres from across Canada submitted 42 938 bacterial/fungal isolates as part of the CANWARD surveillance study. Of these, 8130 (18.9%) were from patients on ICUs. Susceptibility testing guidelines and MIC interpretive criteria were defined by CLSI.
Of the 8130 pathogens collected in this study, 58.2%, 36.3%, 3.1% and 2.4% were from respiratory, blood, wound and urine specimens, respectively. The top five organisms collected from Canadian ICUs accounted for 55.4% of all isolates and included Staphylococcus aureus (21.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.6%), Escherichia coli (10.4%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (6.5%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.4%). MRSA accounted for 20.7% of S. aureus collected, with community-associated (CA) MRSA genotypes increasing in prevalence over time (P < 0.001). The highest susceptibility rates among MRSA were 100% for vancomycin, 100% for ceftobiprole, 100% for linezolid, 99.7% for ceftaroline, 99.7% for daptomycin and 99.7% for tigecycline. The highest susceptibility rates among E. coli were 100% for tigecycline, 99.9% for meropenem, 99.7% for colistin and 94.2% for piperacillin/tazobactam. MDR was identified in 26.3% of E. coli isolates, with 10.1% producing an ESBL. The highest susceptibility rates among P. aeruginosa were 97.5% for ceftolozane/tazobactam, 96.1% for amikacin, 94.7% for colistin and 93.3% for tobramycin.
The most active agents against Gram-negative bacilli were the carbapenems, tigecycline and piperacillin/tazobactam. Against Gram-positive cocci, the most active agents were vancomycin, daptomycin and linezolid. The prevalence of CA-MRSA genotypes and ESBL-producing E. coli collected from ICUs increased significantly over time.