Antibiotic expectation, behaviour, and receipt among patients presenting to emergency departments with uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection during the COVID-19 pandemic

  12 March 2023

Pre-COVID-19 pandemic, patients who attended the emergency department (ED) for upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) were more likely to receive antibiotics if they expected them. These expectations could have changed with the change in health-seeking behaviour during the pandemic. We assessed the factors associated with antibiotics expectation and receipt for uncomplicated URTI patients in four Singapore EDs during the COVID-19 pandemic.

In conclusion, patients with URTI who expected antibiotics to be prescribed remained more likely to receive it during the COVID-19 pandemic. This highlights the need for more public education on the non-necessity for antibiotics for URTI and COVID-19 to address the problem of antibiotic resistance.

Author(s): Zhilian Huang et al
Effective Surveillance  


Unrestricted financial support by:


Antimicrobial Resistance Fighter Coalition

Bangalore Bioinnovation Centre


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